Aqida Tahawiyya – Line 1

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نَقُولُ فِي تَوْحِيدِ اللَّهِ -مُعْتَقِدِينَ بِتَوْفِيقِ اللَّهِ-: إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَاحِدٌ لَا شَرِيكَ لَهُ.

We say about the Unity of Allah – with Allah’s help – that Allah is one, without any partners

The Shaykh raḥimahullāh (may Allāh have mercy upon him) starts the book by first of all speaking about Tawheed. This is because Tawheed is the first thing the Messengers called to, from Nuh the first Messenger 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) to Mohamed the last messenger ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him). They all called to Tawheed and started their Dawah with it. There are many ayaat in the Quran that show this:

لَقَدْ أَرْ‌سَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ فَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَـٰهٍ غَيْرُ‌هُ

We had certainly sent Noah to his people, and he said, “O my people, worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him. [Al-A’raf 7:59]

Hud 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) said to his people:

اعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَـٰهٍ غَيْرُ‌هُ

worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him. [Al-A’raf 7:65]

Salih 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) said to his people:

اعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَـٰهٍ غَيْرُ‌هُ

worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him. [Al-A’raf 7:73]

Shu’ayb 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) said to his people:

اعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَـٰهٍ غَيْرُ‌هُ

worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him. [Al-A’raf 7:85]

Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) also says:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّ‌سُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, [saying], “Worship Allah and avoid Taghut.” [An-Nahl 16:36]

وَمَا أَرْ‌سَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّ‌سُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ

And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, “There is no deity except Me, so worship Me.” [Al-Anbiya 21:25]

The Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said:

أُمِرْتُ أَنْ أُقَاتِلَ النَّاسَ حَتَّى يَشْهَدُوا أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ، وَيُقِيمُوا الصَّلاَةَ، وَيُؤْتُوا الزَّكَاةَ، فَإِذَا فَعَلُوا ذَلِكَ عَصَمُوا مِنِّي دِمَاءَهُمْ وَأَمْوَالَهُمْ إِلاَّ بِحَقِّ الإِسْلاَمِ، وَحِسَابُهُمْ عَلَى اللَّهِ ‏”‏‏.

I have been ordered (by Allah) to fight against the people until they testify that none has the right to be worshipped but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ), and offer the prayers perfectly and give the obligatory charity, so if they perform that, then they save their lives and property from me except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning (accounts) will be done by Allah. [Sahih al-Bukhari 25]

From the above ayaat and hadith we understand that every person calling people to Islam should start with Tawheed. If he does not do this but instead busies himself with other matters while the people are involved in Shirk (worshiping others along with Allah) and he skips the most important matter which all the Messengers started their Dawah with, then know that this person is on a different path to the path of the messengers.

The first obligation upon the slave is the Shahadatain

The scholars of Ahl as-Sunnah are in unanimous agreement that the first obligation of a person is to witness that there is no god except Allah. The daleel for this is the Hadith of Jibril 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him). According to Ahl Bid’a, the first obligation on the person is to be skeptical at first, then to reflect and ponder on the signs of Allah and thus come to the truth then take the Shahada. Their view is false and very dangerous, because while the person is busy reflecting and looking around death may come to him while he has not taken the Shahada and he will die as a Kaafir.

Tawheed is of 3 types

  1. Tawheed al-Asma was-Sifaat
  2. Tawheed ar-Rububiyah
  3. Tawheed al-Uluhiyah

Tawheed al-Asma was-Sifaat – This is to describe Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) by that which he described himself with in the Quran and by which his prophet described him with, without any of the following:

  • Without Tahreef (without altering or distorting)
  • Without Ta’deel (without denying or negating )
  • Without Takyeef (without saying the how of it)
  • Without Tamtheel (without likening to the creation)

Tawheed ar-Rububiyah– This is to single out Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) in the actions he does such as owning, creating, managing the affairs of the creation etc.

Tawheed al-Uluhiyah – This is to single out Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) in the actions the servants do i.e. worship. All forms of worship should only be directed to Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) alone and nobody else. This type of Tawheed is the one the Quran talks about a lot and all the messengers put their efforts in getting people to understand it and correct it.