Aqida Tahawiyya – 7

وَلَا يَكُونُ إِلَّا مَا يُرِيدُ

Nothing comes into being except what He wills.

The kaana here is taamah, meaning it does not need a khabar.

With this line the shaykh is refuting the Mu’tazilah. They are also know as Qadariyyah.

The believe of the Mu’tazilah is that Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) wills every person to have eemaan(faith) but the Kafir wills kufr. They claim that Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) does not will kufr, bid’ah, fisq, ma’siyah but Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) only wills the khayr. As for the kufr, bid’ah, fisq, ma’siyah that some of the people commit, it is because of their own will and Allah only wills them to have eeman.

If this claim of theirs was true, it would mean that the mashee’ah of the kaafir is stronger than the mashee’ah of Allah which is clearly baatil and ahl as-sunnah have refuted this wrong idea.

Allah wills both khayr and shar
The daleel for this is contained in the Hadith of Jibril: “wa tu’minu bil qadari, khayrihii wa sharrihii”.

Although Allahsubḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) has willed both the khayr and the shar, he loves the khayr but hates kufr, bid’ah, fisq, ma’siyah etc. He has willed the shar in that he has decreed it he does not love it and is not pleased with it.

This is what ahlul bid’ah have failed to understand. They say how can Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) will kufr and hate it at the same time. Ahlu us-sunnah have explained that this is possible because the muraadaat that the iraadah is connected to is of two types:

  1. That which you want it to happen because of itself and are happy with it
  2. That which you want it to happen but not because of itself but because of some benefit that will occur because of it. You want it to happen but you don’t like it happening. An example is, going to the dentist. The act of going to the dentist is something we all hate but the benefits it brings is the reason we want to go. Another example is cutting off a part of your body such as a leg in order to save the rest of it.

So Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) has willed and wanted kufr, bid’ah, fisq, ma’siyah in the sense that he decrees it but he hates it, does not approve of it or enjoin it.

وَلَا يَرْ‌ضَىٰ لِعِبَادِهِ الْكُفْرَ‌

And He does not approve for His servants disbelief [Az-Zumar 39:7]

and

وَاللَّـهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الْفَسَادَ

And Allah does not like corruption. [Al-Baqara 2:205]

Mu’tazilah and Jabariyyah are Qadariyyah
The Mu’tazilah are also know as Qadariyyah because they have denied Qadar. They denied Qadar in that they are saying the actions of the slave are his own creation.

The Jabariyyah (determinists) are also know as Qadariyyah because they claim that the servant has no choice in anything that he does and he is like a leaf blowing in the wind. However, the term Qadariyyah is usually used for the first group.

The ahl as-sunah believe that Allah does will evil and sin, but only in the sense that He decrees it, not that he approves of it or enjoins it. Indeed, He hates, abhors and prohibits it. This is the view of the salaf. They believed ‘maashaa’allahu kaana, wa maa lam yasha’ lam yakun – what Allah wills happens and what he does not will does not happen’. For this reason, all of the jurists are agreed that if a man takes an oath by saying, “By Allah I will do such and such if Allah wills,” he does not then break his oath if he does not perform that deed, regardless of whether that action was an obligatory or recommended action. But if he said, “if Allah loves it,” then he would be breaking his oath by not performing it whether it was an obligatory or recommended act.

The daleel that Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) has willed shirk but is not pleased with it is:

سَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَ‌كُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّـهُ مَا أَشْرَ‌كْنَا وَلَا آبَاؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّ‌مْنَا مِن شَيْءٍ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ حَتَّىٰ ذَاقُوا بَأْسَنَا ۗ قُلْ هَلْ عِندَكُم مِّنْ عِلْمٍ فَتُخْرِ‌جُوهُ لَنَا ۖ إِن تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلَّا الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ أَنتُمْ إِلَّا تَخْرُ‌صُونَ

Those who associated with Allah will say, “If Allah had willed, we would not have associated [anything] and neither would our fathers, nor would we have prohibited anything.” Likewise did those before deny until they tasted Our punishment. Say, “Do you have any knowledge that you can produce for us? You follow not except assumption, and you are not but falsifying.” [Al-An’am 6:148]

and

وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَ‌كُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللَّـهُ مَا عَبَدْنَا مِن دُونِهِ مِن شَيْءٍ نَّحْنُ وَلَا آبَاؤُنَا وَلَا حَرَّ‌مْنَا مِن دُونِهِ مِن شَيْءٍ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ فَعَلَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ فَهَلْ عَلَى الرُّ‌سُلِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ

And those who associate others with Allah say, “If Allah had willed, we would not have worshipped anything other than Him, neither we nor our fathers, nor would we have forbidden anything through other than Him.” Thus did those do before them. So is there upon the messengers except [the duty of] clear notification? [An-Nahl 16:35]

When they say that Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) willed that we associate, what they mean is that Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) is pleased for us to associate, which is clearly baatil. So their statement is true but they mean by it falsehood. This is why they were censured with ” كَذَٰلِكَ فَعَلَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ” .

The Iraadah (will) of Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) is of two types

  1. Qadariyyah (deterministic), Kawniyyah (existential) and Khalqiyyah (creative) – sometimes shortened to
    Kawniyyah or Qadariyyah – That which Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) has willed and decreed. Whether he loves it or not. This is every event that occurs.
  2. Deeniyyah (religious), Amriyyah (prescriptive) and Shar’iyyah (legislative) – sometimes shortened to Shar’iyyah – That which Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) has willed and legislated for the slaves to do and he is pleased with it.

The difference between the two is that Iraadah Kawniyyah applies to every event that occurs whether Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) is pleased with it or not. It is everything that happens in the universe which Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) has decreed.

As for Iraadah Shar’iyyah, it applies to those acts which Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) loves and approves of.

Another difference between the two Iraadah is that Iraadat Kawniyyah is laazim that it will happen and there is nothing that can stop it. ‘Maa shaallahu kaana, wa lam yasha’ lam yakun.

As for Iraadah shar’iyyah, it might occur and it might not occur. Allah has legislated people worship him alone, some do and some don’t. Allah has legislated people pray salaat, some do and some don’t etc.

The Ash’aris have gone agains ahl as-sunnah when it comes to Qadr

Imam al Haramayn says in his book al-irshaad that the Ash’ari scholars have disputed amongst themselves whether Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) loves and is pleased with kufr, bid’ah, shirk etc. They affirm that Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) has willed these things but the question is does He love it? He says the ash’aris have divided into 2 and the stronger opinion is that Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) is loves and is pleased with kufr, fisq and bid’ah! He was asked how do you explain the words of Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) وَلَا يَرْ‌ضَىٰ لِعِبَادِهِ الْكُفْرَ‌ – And He does not approve for His servants disbelief [Az-Zumar 39:7] ? His answer was that what is meant here by ‘servants’ is ‘the believing servants’. So he made Ta’weel of this ayah and what is meant is all the servants of Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) whether they are believing or not.